The short answer is YES, the Hebrew word translated “amen” literally means “truly” or “so be it.” “Amen” is also found in the Greek New Testament and has the same meaning. Nearly half of the Old Testament uses of amen are found in the book of Deuteronomy. In each case, the people are responding to curses pronounced by God on various sins. Each pronouncement is followed by the words “and all the people shall say Amen” (Deuteronomy 27:15–26). This indicates that the people applauded the righteous sentence handed down by God, responding, “So let it be.” …


“Then did I consider these things, and they all were made through me alone, and through none other: by me also they shall be ended, and by none other.” 2 Esdras 2:6

This verse claims the sovereignty of God the Father alone in creation and judgment.

The books of 1 and 2 Esdras are not part of the biblical canon. First Esdras is part of what is considered the Apocryphal/Deuterocanonical scripture. Second Esdras is an apocalyptic work and is considered pseudepigraphal. Except for some Greek Orthodox, Episcopal, or Lutheran Bibles, 1 and 2 Esdras do not appear in most Bibles…


The short answer is NO. It is very important to clarify exactly what role the Emperor Constantine played in the Council of Nicea, what the purpose for the council was, what happened at Nicea, and briefly how the canon — the Bible as we know it — was formed. Constantine was a Roman Emperor who lived from 274 to 337 A.D. He is most famous for becoming the single ruler of the Roman Empire (after deceiving and defeating Licinius, his brother-in-law) and later converting to Christianity. It is debated whether or not Constantine was actually a believer (according to his…


There are several definitions for spiritual leader, and the term brings to mind different things to different people. Some think of a spiritual leader as a sort of guru. Others think of him/her as a life coach, one who can guide others through the problems and trials of life. The Bible describes a spiritual leader as one who possesses the spiritual gift of leadership, the ability to lead others as a direct result of the gifting received from, and performed by the power of, the Holy Spirit.

The biblical spiritual leader understands that his/her leadership is one of servanthood. The…


The Book of Joshua does not explicitly name its author. More than likely Joshua the son of Nun, the successor of Moses as leader over Israel, penned much of this book. The latter part of the book was written by at least one other person after the death of Joshua. It is also possible that several sections were edited / compiled following Joshua’s death.

The Book of Joshua was likely written between 1400 and 1370 B.C.

The Book of Joshua provides an overview of the military campaigns to conquer the land area that God had promised. Following the exodus from…


“And, behold, there cometh one of the rulers of the synagogue, Jairus by name; and when he saw him, he fell at his feet, And besought him greatly, saying, My little daughter lieth at the point of death: I pray thee, come and lay thy hands on her, that she may be healed; and she shall live. And Jesus went with him; and much people followed him, and thronged him. And a certain woman, which had an issue of blood twelve years, And had suffered many things of many physicians, and had spent all that she had, and was nothing…


“Paul, a servant of Jesus Christ, called to be an apostle, separated unto the gospel of God”Romans 1:1

The Book of Romans was written in A.D. 56–58. The Apostle Paul wrote the the Book of Romans, he used a man named Tertius to transcribe his words. “I Tertius, who wrote this epistle, salute you in the Lord.” Romans 16:22

As with all Paul’s epistles to the churches, his purpose in writing was to proclaim the glory of the Lord Jesus the Christ by teaching doctrine and edify and encourage the believers who would receive his letter. Of particular concern to…


Marcionism was a religious movement based on the teachings of the 2nd-century heretic Marcion of Sinope. While none of Marcion’s writings have survived to the present, his teachings are known through several early Christian writers including Justin Martyr (AD 100–165), Irenaeus of Lyons (AD 130–200) and Hippolytus (AD 170–235). These men combatted Marcion in defense of the truth.

Marcion held to many errant views, but he is primarily known for his belief that the Old Testament Scriptures were not authoritative for a Christian. He denied that the God of the Old Testament was the same God presented in the New…


“Paul, a servant of God, and an apostle of Jesus Christ, according to the faith of God’s elect, and the acknowledging of the truth which is after godliness; In hope of eternal life, which God, that cannot lie, promised before the world began” Titus 1:1–2

It is impossible for someone to be saved without being elected by God to salvation. Many people, the first time they encounter the doctrine of election, are upset by what seems to them to be a horribly unfair arrangement. Unfortunately, that is where many people end the discussion. …


The tribe of Dan was the group of people who descended from the fifth son of Jacob, Dan. Jacob had twelve sons who became the patriarchs of the twelve tribes of Israel. The history of the tribe of Dan contains multiple examples of the tendency of people to follow man-made religion over biblical faith in God.

“Therefore by the deeds of the law there shall no flesh be justified in his sight: for by the law is the knowledge of sin.” Romans 3:20

“But without faith it is impossible to please him: for he that cometh to God must believe…

Tony — Antonakis Maritis

Tony is an Executive Consultant for Research on Biblical Antiquities for Academia.edu and is published by WIPF and Stock Publishers, Amazon and Barnes & Noble

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